Wingtip

Wing tip devices are usually designed to improve the efficiency of aircraft wing fija.1 Several types of wing tip devices, and although they work in different ways, the end is always to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft by altering the airflow near the wing tips. Wing tip devices also improve the handling characteristics of the aircraft and enhance safety for aircraft going back. These devices increase the effective wing aspect ratio wing without a material increase in the scale. An extension of the scale would reduce induced drag, but would increase drag and require further increasing the strength and weight of the wing. At one time, there is no net gain in fact further increase the scale, there are also operational considerations that limit the size (eg size of the facilities at airports).
Wing tip devices increase the lift generated on the wing tip (smoothing the flow of air through the top of the wing near the tip) and reduce the induced drag caused by the wing tip vortices, improving aerodynamic performance . This increases efficiency in fuel consumption and increases in powered aircraft flight speed in gliders, in both cases increasing range.
The wing-tip or winglets are aerodynamic devices used at the ends of the wings of airplanes. Essentially seek to reduce the drag caused by the difference in pressure between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Generally have the form of a flap up at the end of the wing but may adopt different geometries.
It is now becoming more widespread use of winglets on medium-sized aircraft for private use or in the executive and also for transportation of passengers, such as the Boeing 737-800, Boeing 747 and Airbus 320, among others. Incorporate these planes in a wingtip extension bent upward almost vertically, whose function is to reduce turbulence which is formed at that location during the flight, thereby improving aerodynamic performance. The winglets help decrease approximately 4% fuel on flights exceeding 1,800 km, as they reduce engine power without thereby slow down the plane and increase the performance of the aircraft at high angles of attack.
The winglets were first introduced on a commercial aircraft in the A300 Airbus, were small.
Basically we could say that theories of fluid dynamics tell us that over the wing vortices are formed due to the pressure difference between the extrados and the intrados. In the wing tip occurs whenever a loosening of the vortex-shaped flow, passing the wing cross-section to zero. This detachment increases the drag of the airplane, the more the higher the intensity of the vortex.
The vortices being reduced in intensity along the wingspan, by reducing its cross section and, therefore, the pressure difference. Thus, the longer wing, the lower intensity. Notwithstanding the wings can not be too long to increase too much burden on the root.

Types of Winglets:

  • Wingtip Fence:

  • Blended Wingtip:

  • Raked Wingtip:

 

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